Saturday, 11 August 2007

US gave full backing to Turkish invasion

US gave full backing to Turkish invasion

THE United States gave full blessing to the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, even assuring Turkey that it would "get them a solution involving one third of the island.''

This cynical US involvement is revealed in the latest batch of secret official State Department documents released for publication under the 30-year rule.

The American stand has long been known, but this is the first time that it has been confirmed so completely by an official State Department document.

This is clarified in the very first paragraph of the document which is stamped ``SECRET/EYES ONLY.''

It declares that the only conceivable settlement of the Cyprus problem "will have to rest on a de facto division of the island, whatever the form."

While admitting that the United States ``has the clout'' to prevent the invasion, the document nevertheless advises against doing so "before the fighting stops."

The document is dated August 14, 1974, the exact date of the second massive wave of the Turkish invasion of the island. It is headed: ``Memorandum for the Secretary - Cyprus Actions'' from Helmut Sonnenfeldt, one of the top State Department officials dealing with Greco-Turkish affairs.

The document even includes a map detailing the plan of action of the Turkish invasion force. This is headed ``Map done by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research projecting Turkish moves on Cyprus, August 13, 1974.''

It is worth noting that this plan was the one followed exactly by the Turkish troops, a further proof of the close American involvement in the Turkish invasion planning.

Here is the full text of the document:




August 14, 1974



FROM: Helmut Sonnenfeldt

SUBJECT: Cyprus Actions

You wanted some brief ideas on what we do next.

Nothing I can think of will stop the Turks now from trying to secure by force what they demanded in their ultimata. In fact, as has always been true, the only coneivable modus vivendi will have to rest on a de facto division of the island, whatever the form.

If the Turks move fast and can then be gotten to stand down, it may pre-empt Greek counteraction and then give us a chance to try for a deal. (It may also save Karamanlis).

While the Soviets can serve as a bogey, we must keep them at arms length. They cannot become the arbiter between US allies. Their interests differ drastically from ours: we want a modus vivendi between Greece and Turkey, they want a non-aligned Cyprus, preferably with Greece or Turkey or both disaffected from NATO.

Thus, we should

- urgently try to contain Greek reaction; 24 hours at a time;

- bluntly tell the Turks they must stop, today, tomorrow at the latest;

- warn the Turks that Greece is rapidly moving leftward;

- send high-level US man to Athens to exert continuing direct influence on Karamanlis;

- assuming the Turks quickly take Famagusta, privately assure Turks we will get them solution involving one third of island, within some kind of federal arrangement;

- assure Greeks we will contain Turk demands and allow no additional enclaves, etc.

You should not get involved directly till the fighting stops; then you must since there is no alternative and only we have the clout.

I do not think Brussels/NATO is the place to use when the time comes. The Greeks are probably too sore at NATO and the vehicle of a ministerial meeting is awkward. Anyway, you need Ecevit and Karamanlis.

London may be unacceptable to the Turks because of Callaghan’s blast at them.

You should not shuttle.

This may mean Geneva. Washington, at the President’s initiative, would be all right but hard to get the parties to come to. Also provocative of the Russians. New York would make it difficult to keep the Russians away.

You could also try Rome.


10th August 2007

Cyprus Weekly Editorial on the matter:

Shocking US admission

THE full United States backing of the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974 has long been well known.

This does not render any less shocking the first official confirmation of this involvement in the State Department secret documents released this week under the 30-year rule.

If anything, what is needed is a stronger word than just "shocking" to describe the State Department's assurance to the Turks that "we will get them a solution involving one third of the island, within some kind of federal arrangement."

Here is the almighty Uncle Sam acting like King Solomon by assuring Turkey that it will in effect chop Cyprus in half, and give it part of it as its own!

While it may be argued that such a division might have been accepted by both sides as a mutually agreed settlement of the problem, it is a far cry from backing such a solution as the direct result of the invasion of one sovereign country by another at the cost of tens of thousands of innocent civilian lives lost, the forced uprooting of a whole population and the seizure of the properties of the displaced persons.

Such actions are war crimes and this inevitably makes Uncle Sam himself a war criminal, or an accessory, for advising Turkey to act this way.

Cyprus has already resorted to the international courts, demanding Turkey's punishment, and compensation for the victims of these war crimes.

With the US State Department admission that it backed the Turkish aggression and consequent war crimes, it is high time that Cyprus also sued the United States, and Henry Kissinger himself, as accessories to Ankara's war crimes and sought compensation from there also.

[op ed: This writer calls for Google to be "sued" at court in the US by the Cyprus Lobby regarding its practice in "promoting the sale of property which has been proved to have been stolen"]


Below, a video recorded by the author of this blog during a recent event in London organised by the "Lobby for Cyprus" within the context of Theatro Technis' "Cyprus Week" [all organised in conjunction with the [Organisation of Cypriot Organisations, this year presented by its newly elected President, Peter Droussiotis] (to mark 33 years since the Greek junta coup and Turkish invasion of the island) regarding continuing moves in the European Court of Human Rights -- "Property rights in occupied Cyprus"

Other video items, including the Demonstration in Trafalgar Square (with speeches by British MPs and EuroMP's) is available at the Theatro Technis facility at MySpace:

Thursday, 9 August 2007

US Congress measures - meagre comfort to Cypriots after 33 years

At last the pro-Cyprus Lobby in the US makes a move:


US Congress legislation to end Turkish occupation of Cyprus


The US Congress has taken another significant step toward improving American policy on Cyprus with the introduction of two Cyprus bills, which the sponsors noted complement each other, said the leaders of the Coordinated Effort of Hellenes (CEH).

According to a CEH statement, “one of the two bills, House Resolution 620, calls on Turkey to `end its military occupation…particularly because Turkey’s pretext has been refuted by over 13 million crossings by Turkish-Cypriots and Greek-Cypriots into each other’s communities without incident.’ ”

“This legislation carries particular weight with American policy-makers because its primary sponsors, Congressmen Albio Sires (D-NJ) and Gus Bilirakis (R-FL), are among only 14 out of the 435 members of the U.S. House of Representatives selected by their colleagues to oversee matters relating to Europe -- as members of the House Foreign Affairs Committee’s Subcommittee on Europe. Cyprus advocates Representatives Carolyn Maloney (D-NY), John Sarbanes (D-MD) and Zack Space (D-OH) are also original co-sponsors”, CEH added.

“The bill adds to momentum that is building in the U.S. to end Turkey’s occupation of Cyprus, particularly after 13 million peaceful crossings of the Green Line”, CEH said, noting that it also “builds on the recent statement by the Chairman of the powerful U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Senator Joe Biden (D-DE), who encouraged America to refocus on this matter that is at the heart of the Cyprus problem."

It also adds to the impetus generated by the recent letter to Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice by the creator of the Congressional Turkey Caucus and Chairman of the House Europe Subcommittee, Congressman Robert Wexler (D-FL), the statement notes. "Chairman Wexler felt that it is in Turkey’s interests to focus on withdrawing troops", it says.

“No legislation in recent years that has focused on ending the division of Cyprus has received more than 27 members of Congress asking to become cosponsors (advocates). If this new momentum continues, and we plan to make sure that it does, many more that 27 members of Congress will become cosponsors.”

Cyprus has been divided since 1974 when Turkish troops invaded and occupied the island’s northern third. Restrictions on free movement to and from the island’s occupied areas, imposed by the Turkish Cypriot regime, were partially lifted in April 2003, a move that is still in place and allows, albeit under restrictions, Cypriots to cross the UN controlled buffer zone.

Prime Minister Brown debacle on Cyprus

No - this is NOT a comment on Brown having appeared, during his recent visit to see Bush, to be no different to Blair .... we will see in coming months whether the next time Bush says 'jump' ... whether Brown will ask "how high do you want me to jump this time?" .... as his predecessor in the British Prime Ministerial office had done!

This IS a comment about the first moves Brown has made on the Cyprus issue since taking office.

Though it is a convention in 'blog' circles to not quote entire sections of material from another site, but to choose selections and then provide a link, in this instance the comments by Theresa Villiers on her website (and repeated during the 'Rally for Cyprus' which was videotaped by me) provided below do deserve to be quoted in their entirety.

Chipping Barnet MP - Theresa Villiers - has today written to the new Foreign Secretary, David Miliband, to protest about Joan Ryan's appointment as Gordon Brown's advisor on Cyprus. Speaking from Westminster, she said:

“I was shocked to learn of this appointment. This is a slap in the face for the Cypriot community. If the community thought that Tony Blair's resignation would mean that the Labour government started to see sense again on Cyprus, this appointment shows there's no hope of that. Gordon Brown is clearly going to continue Mr Blair's discredited approach on Cyprus which has completely let down all those who fled their homes during the 1974 invasion.”

“Joan Ryan has not taken a balanced or fair approach on Cyprus issues and I am deeply worried about the prospect of her deciding what the British government’s approach on this issue should be. I oppose this appointment and I have appealed to David Miliband to meet me and representatives of the Cypriot community so that he can hear at first hand why Gordon Brown’s decision has caused such anger and outrage in his first 3 days at Number 10.”

The letter sent to Foreign Secretary, David Miliband, is as follows:

Rt Hon David Miliband MP, Secretary of State for the Foreign and Commonwealth Office

Dear David

I am writing in my capacity as MP for Chipping Barnet, a role which gives me the honour and privilege of representing a large British Cypriot community.

Many of my constituents are deeply concerned about yesterday’s appointment of Joan Ryan as the Prime Minister’s advisor on Cyprus.

They believe that Ms Ryan has not taken a balanced or fair approach on matters relating to Cyprus. I have to say I sympathise with their point of view.

You will no doubt become aware as you read into your new brief that Tony Blair caused grave offence to many in the Cypriot community by criticising the Greek Cypriot no vote on the Annan 5 UN plan on Cyprus. They rightly felt that it was unacceptable for the then Prime Minister to tell them that they were wrong in the way they chose to vote in a democratic referendum on the future of their own country.

The UK government’s subsequent pressure for a move towards direct trade links with the unrecognised regime in northern Cyprus breaks with many years of cross party consensus in British politics and betrays a hugely worrying lack of concern and respect for the many people who were driven from their homes and villages by the 1974 invasion of Cyprus.

By appointing Joan Ryan to a highly influential position on Cyprus as one of his very first acts as Prime Minister, Gordon Brown has delivered a slap in the face to those people and to thousands of other in the British Cypriot community.

He is not only signalling that the discredited and one-sided approach of Mr Blair is to continue, he is making the situation worse and driving an even deeper wedge between the Labour government and the Cypriot community. Many of my constituents rightly feel disappointed, angry and deeply disillusioned by this latest Labour betrayal on Cyprus.

In the light of the dismay felt that Mr Brown’s decision has caused, I would be grateful if you could consider agreeing to meet me and a delegation of British Cypriots to discuss this further and to listen to the reasons why they strongly oppose this appointment.

In the meantime, I would also appreciate it if you could outline the exact nature of the role Ms Ryan will play in relation to Cyprus.

Theresa Villiers MP

Readers can also refer to other additional information on a site that many will point out is more partisan, in being a Greek source, but hey, this is OUR issue, OUR island, OUR lives that are being 'determined' ...

... being determined still ... (who said anything about the Cypriot people having the right to 'self-determination')

... determined as a result of strings being pulled in a particular sequence in certain particular foreign centres of power.

Britain, being the former colonial power in Cyprus, as well as having some vestige responsibilities as one of the 3 so-called guarantor powers (a system which has so demonstrably failed Cypriots and MUST therefore be got rid of in any future proposal on solving the gordian knot which is the Cyprus problem) ... has some particular responsibilities on Cyprus which fortunately for Cyprus are now being modified by the collective decision-making process within the EU. Britain, and its influence in efforts to 'shape' initiatives and ideas both within the EU as well as within the Security Council at the United Nations ..... was seen in the debacle of Tony Blair's efforts to get United Nations approval over the Iraq War.

It will be for historians in future years to assess the exact impact of Britain's (and behind it the hand of the US State Department) lead in shaping the so-called Annan Plan which the Cypriot people were presented with at the April 2004 referendum .... in the (UK and US) hope of getting the people to pass it by referendum as a last-ditch attempt at the point of maximum leverage on the Greek Cypriots ... BEFORE accession to the EU by Cyprus became a reality.

The role of Britain's Lord Hannay has already been written about in his own book on the matter, as well as having been discussed elsewhere, but the role of Verheugen producing a ruling that the then-Annan plan was compatible with the EU's Acquis Communautaire is a good subject for some aspiring PHD student to take up as a subject for critical legal autopsy.

Given THAT history, for Brown to come up with the appointment of Joan Ryan despite the feelings and representations against the selection by the Cypriot community in the UK .... is correctly categorised by Theresa Villiers as a 'slap in the face' !



Prime Minister Brown - no improvement on Blair's dismal performance

With reference to the above, there is now an online petition which those who are British subjects are asked to sign.

The petition reads as follows:

"We are shocked and appalled to learn of the appointment of Joan Ryan as special envoy to Cyprus. It is our belief that Joan Ryan has not taken a balanced or fair approach on Cyprus issues and we are deeply worried about the prospect of her deciding what the British governments approach on this issue should be. We are deeply worried that Gordon Brown is going to continue Mr. Blair's discredited approach on Cyprus which has completely let down all those who fled their homes during the illegal 1974 Turkish invasion. Joan Ryan%u2019s appointment as special envoy underlines that this government will continue its biased approach against a just and fair solution with ultimate aim the division of Cyprus and the appeasement of Turkey. We petition the Prime Minister to appoint a new special envoy after consulting the leaders of the Cypriot community in the UK and the Cyprus government and obtaining their approval."

The petition is available online and is open for new signatured until October 2007

Please take a moment to sign the petition